The army became more mobile and maneuverable, it marched long distances.

The army became more mobile and maneuverable, it marched long distances.

Prince Danylo Halytsky was constantly improving the organization of his army. His reorganization into the army contributed to the introduction of a strong single leadership, a clearer division of the army into gunsmiths and riflemen, the cities were divided into hundreds and streets, which exhibited a certain number of soldiers. The army became more mobile and maneuverable, it marched long distances. The number of Galician-Volyn troops sometimes reached 50 thousand people. Simultaneously with the new organization of the armed forces, fortifications were also improved. Cities played an important role in military affairs. Most of them were located on strategic roads.

Ridges, ie castles of the early period, consisted mainly of earthen ramparts, or wooden logs filled with earth, to which wooden gardens, connected bridges, etc. were connected. But the wooden "ridges" were already weak against the horde. Danilo began to build stronger fortifications – stone. The most common type of stone structure was the "pillar", ie a tower built of stone and brick. In the chronicle we find a mention of the mighty fortifications of Vladimir, which surprised the Hungarian King Bela: "I did not find such a hail in the German lands." The fortifications of Kholm, Kamyanets, and Danilov, which the Tatars did not dare to capture, were built in a similar way.

As in Kievan Rus, the weapons of the troops of the Galician-Volyn state can be divided into defensive and hooked. The defensive included armor (armor), helmet and shield. Hook weapons include spears (spears) with different names, swords, sabers, axes and bows and arrows. Almost all weapons were self-produced. The infantry was armed with swords and spears, and for protection had metal armor, helmets and shields. The archers were armed with bows and swords. If they were on horseback, they were light cavalry.

In the thirteenth century. in the army of the Galicia-Volyn principality there was a noticeable progress in the armament of the army and in its tactics. There has been a significant improvement in weapons: for example, the rider’s helmet is smaller than in the morning, and better protects the head; the shield is also smaller and easier to fight. There were three types of spears: spear, spear and mouth. Lightly armed archers also received new weapons – rozhans, some improved bows. During the assault on the fortifications, engineering devices were used – rams, crossbows, vices (catapults). The tactics of the Galician-Volyn army were innovative.

The scheme of building the battle was interesting. It all seemed to be divided into two parts: the initial battle of the light cavalry and infantry, and the main blow of the heavy armed regiments. The actions of gunners and archers were closely coordinated in battle. The archers not only formed the front regiments of the army, but also stood on the wings of the gunsmiths, protecting them from the flanks. The princes of Galicia and Volhynia began to successfully apply a new tactic of depleting the enemy by constant maneuvers.

The tactics of simultaneous attack of archers and rutters were also successfully used. This was first done by Danylo Halytsky in 1215. To keep the archers in battle, he placed a railroad next to each of them. Now the shooters were able to approach the enemy almost closely and shoot him under cover of his regiment of railroad workers. In one of the battles, "Danilo … went forward himself and let the shooters go forward, and the others on both sides of the road."

The constant concern of the Galician-Volyn princes for the development and strengthening of the army allowed them to successfully fight both internal enemies – the boyars, and external enemies. In constant campaigns and wars, year after year, from generation to generation improved weapons, forms of hostilities, organization of troops, combat traditions. These troops won a number of victories in campaigns in Poland and Silesia, near Yaroslavl, in campaigns against the Yatvyags, in the fight against the Horde. In 1243 Daniel besieged Lublin twice.

In the campaign of 1244, Daniel captured the castle in Lublin and conquered the land of Lublin. To support his son’s Austrian candidacy, Danylo and Boleslaw of Cracow marched against the Czechs in Silesia and their troops occupied Opava.

In 1240-1250 Daniel led an offensive on the northern border of his principality – against the Lithuanian tribes and conquered the parishes in White Russia. He also extended his possessions to the Turov-Pinsk principality. In 1254, Danylo Halytsky led his army into battle against the Tatar voivode Kuremsa and defeated him. Later, Danylo’s son Lev successfully fought the Tatars. He annexes part of Transcarpathia. For a long time, Volodymyr and Andriy, Lev (Volyn), fought with Lithuania and the Horde.

During the Mongol-Tatar enslavement, the Galicia-Volyn state was the most organized principality in Eastern Europe. Volhynia and Galicia became a protection for the population fleeing from the yoke of the Tatars. The Tatars could not destroy them so much, as they destroyed the Dnieper principalities. At the same time, the Galicia-Volyn principality was an "insurmountable shield" that protected Poland and other Western countries from Tatar aggression.

literature

Berezhynsky VG Weapons of Kievan Rus. – Kyiv, 1997. – P. 252. Hrushevsky MS History of Ukraine-Russia. T. II. – Kyiv: Naukova Dumka, 1992. – P. 171. Krypyakevych I. Halych-Volyn principality. – Lviv, 1999. – P. 12. Rochnyak V. Armed forces of the Galicia-Volyn principality // People’s Army. 1999. October 22. P. 382.

03/23/2013

Excerpts from the Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk. Abstract

The abstract contains some excerpts from the Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk

I. The current newly elected hetman must and will first of all take care and stand firm so that no superstition in Little Russia, our Fatherland, is introduced, and when it is revealed somewhere, either secretly or explicitly, then by the authorities he must eradicate it, he will not allow it to be preached

II. As each state is formed and affirmed by the inviolable integrity of borders, so is Little Russia, our Motherland, so that within its borders, approved by the pacts of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Moscow state, first of all: those who retreated along the river Sluch for hetmanship, glorious memory, Bohdan Khmelnytsky were retreated, eternally loyal and fortified by pacts from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth to the Hetmanate, were not forcibly changed and violated.

III. Since we always need the neighborly friendship of the Crimean state, from which the Zaporozhian army has repeatedly sought help for its defense, so, as far as possible at this time, the clairvoyant hetman with the most noble khan, his mercy, Crimean has to take care through ambassadors to restore the ancient with the Crimean state brotherhood, military collegium and confirmation of the constant friendship, which, looking back, the surrounding states would not dare to want to enslave Ukraine and force it in anything.

IV. The illustrious hetman must see to it that the Dnieper is cleared of Moscow’s towns and fortresses, as well as the military soil from the Moscow estate to the original region. The Zaporozhian army was returned, where not only will the clairvoyant hetman no longer have to build fortresses, or to fund gardens, or to besiege settlements and in any way to ravage those military lands, but he will also be obliged to assist the Zaporozhian grassroots army in their defense.

V. To return the city of Terekhtemyriv to the Zaporozhian grassroots army with all the lands and transportation on the Dnieper that is there, to build a hospital for old impoverished and wounded crippled Cossacks at the expense of the military and to provide them with food and clothing, fishing. Also, save the entire Dnieper from top to bottom from Perevolochnaya under the Zaporozhian army.

Vi. The sergeant general, the Kosh ataman, and the entire Zaporozhian army agreed and decided with the clairvoyant write my lab report for me cheap hetman in the election of his majesty such a right, which must be preserved permanently in the Zaporozhian army: that in the Fatherland our first advisers be the general sergeant, in the residence established under the hetmans.

Vii. If any of the generals, colonels, general advisers, large society and other military officials over the same black or the hetman’s honor would dare to offend, or to blame in some other case, such criminals should not be punished by the clairvoyant hetman himself with his private revenge and the authorities, and must hand over such a case (whether criminal or non-criminal) to the military general court, and any unhypocritical and unpleasant decree that falls on him must be borne by every criminal.

VIII. The same generals who duly reside on the hetman’s side must report to the illustrious hetman all sorts of military affairs that belong to someone’s rank and duty, and select declarations, not private house servants, who are not to be used in any military affairs, reports or affairs.

IX. The management of the military treasury is established by a general agreement and is necessarily legalized, the general treasurer manages the mills and all kinds of military parishes and returns them for public military needs with the famous hetman, and not for his private. And the clairvoyant hetman himself should not belong to the military treasury and parishes belonging to him and use it for his personal gain, but be satisfied with his dues and parishes, which are placed on the mace and his hetman’s person.

X. Just as the clairvoyant hetman has to follow all the orders in the Fatherland and the Zaporozhian military order, the position of his government, so he must keep an eye on the vigilant and indefatigable eye, so that the military and the commonwealth are not overburdened, imposed, oppressed and extorted, because of which, having left their homes, they have become accustomed to go and look for a calmer, easier and more useful place to live in foreign countries.

XI. Cossack widows and orphaned Cossack children, Cossack widows and women without the presence of the Cossacks themselves, when in campaigns, or at any service, so as not to be involved in all sorts of commonwealth duties and not to be burdened by extortion – agreed and decided.

XII. A general audit of all estates that remained under the statesmen should be established through the commissioners elected and submitted to the attention of the General Council under the Hetman, according to which it will be judged and decided who deserves and who should not keep military goods and property, and what duties and the citizens must give obedience to the statesmen.